The Gallipoli Campaign of the First World War was a monumentally significant moment in the histories of the belligerents involved. Since 1916, Australians and New Zealanders have commemorated this occasion on the 25th of April, the date of the Gallipoli landings. Called Anzac Day, it is regarded as the most significant commemoration of military sacrifice in Australia and New Zealand.[1] The beginning of the campaign and the eight months that followed is often marked as the birth of national consciousness in Australia and New Zealand.[2] This national consciousness is captured within the concept known as the ‘Anzac spirit.’ This is a term that was promulgated throughout the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries that allegedly epitomised the qualities of Anzac soldiers on the frontlines of the First World War, especially Gallipoli. The Australian War Memorial depicts these qualities held by the Anzacs to be of, “great courage, endurance, initiative, discipline, and mateship.”[3] The ‘Anzac spirit’ has been featured prominently in Australian popular culture since 1916. This essay will examine the history of the Anzac spirit’s portrayal in Australian popular culture and for what reasons. This will be achieved by firstly focusing on the early history of the term, specifically analysing why the terminology and identity of the ‘Anzac legend’ was devised in the early years following the Gallipoli Campaign. This essay will primarily focus on three pieces of film and television of which emphasised the heroic qualities of the Australian and New Zealand soldiers. The films that will be analysed are: Alfred Rolfe’s 1915 film called The Hero of the Dardanelles; Peter Weir’s 1981 film entitled Gallipoli; and the Nine Network’s 2015 television drama miniseries also called Gallipoli. The extent to which these productions were a product of their socio-economic context and their reflection of a wider public discourse are key points to be discussed in this essay. In addition, it is essential to determine how the representations of the ‘Anzac spirit’ function in the context of their respective public discourses. As Australian society has changed in the last century since Gallipoli, the portrayal of the ‘Anzac legend’ within popular culture has also changed. These films demonstrate and reflect these changes, whilst also stimulating various discussions as to the relevance and legitimacy of the ‘Anzac spirit. A better understanding of the ‘Anzac spirit’s’ legitimacy and relevance to Australian society can be made through the examination of its presence in Australian popular culture throughout the last one hundred years.

 

In analysing the traits of the Anzac spirit through its representation in popular culture, it is important to discuss briefly the campaign of which it emerged. The Gallipoli Campaign was a large military campaign during the First World War on the Gallipoli peninsula within the Ottoman Empire, (modern day Turkey) between the 25th of April 1915 and the 9th of January 1916. The aim of the campaign was to secure the Dardanelles, a key strait that provided the Russian Empire an important sea route. Following a naval barrage, the Allied Forces would launch an amphibious assault on the Gallipoli peninsular with the ultimate objective being to take the Ottoman capital Constantinople (modern Istanbul).[4] The Australian and New Zealand force landed 1.6 kilometres north from their intended landing beach at Gaba Tepe, now called Anzac Cove, and faced heavy resistance by the Ottomans. The result of the campaign was of defeat by the Allies. The Ottomans repelled the initial naval attack, and following eight months of battle, the Allied forces evacuated from the peninsular. The battle was a monumental defeat for the Allies, with British historian Peter Hart noting that the Turkish forces, “held the Allies back from their real objectives with relative ease”.[5] In total, 8,709 soldiers from Australia, and 2,721 from New Zealand were killed in action during the campaign.[6] These casualties had a monumental impact on the Australian and New Zealand home fronts when compared with the small populations of these nations in 1915. Hence, through concisely discussing the Australian involvement in the Gallipoli campaign, it can be noted how a nationalistic mythology can be created.

 

Almost immediately after the Anzac forces landed at Gallipoli, word reached Australia and New Zealand regarding the valour and heroics of the Anzac soldiers. British war correspondent Ellis Ashmead-Bartlett provided the first official reports of the Anzac soldiers at Gallipoli. He documented their story on the 8th of May 1915 that stated, “They waited neither for orders nor for the boats to reach the beach, but, springing out into the sea, they waded ashore, and, forming some sort of rough line, rushed straight on the flashes of the enemy’s rifles”.[7] Ashmead-Bartlett’s openly heroic account of the Anzac forces made an incredible impression in Australia. Nationalistic sentiments appeared quickly following the news of the landings around Australia. This is demonstrated through the Australian poet Banjo Paterson’s 1915 poem that he wrote in response to the Anzac landings called ‘We’re All Australians Now.’ It reads: “The mettle that a race can show, Is proved with shot and steel, And now we know what nations know, And feel what nations feel”.[8] Historian Jenny Macleod summarised this early articulation of the Anzac legend as “…Australia’s first major appearance on the world stage. It was the Australians’ ‘baptism of fire’, ‘the birth of a nation’”.[9] Perhaps the most prominent and influential reports regarding the spirit of the Anzac soldiers emerged from Australia’s official war historian and correspondent Charles E.W. Bean. At the conclusion of ‘Volume II’ of his ‘Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918,’ Bean wrote that,In no unreal sense it was on the 25th of April, 1915, that the consciousness of Australian nationhood was born, Anzac Day”.[10] Bean was also central in his description of the ‘Anzac spirit.’ This is located within his one-volume history entitled, ‘Anzac to Amiens. Bean wrote,“ …Anzac stood, and still stands, for reckless valour in a good cause, for enterprise, resourcefulness, fidelity, comradeship, and endurance that will never own defeat”.[11] Bean with other contemporary historians and journalists by the end of the war had firmly established what is now known as the ‘Anzac spirit or legend’. The reasons for this are essential to note, as they help to understand how the nationalistic traits of the ‘Anzac spirit’ are portrayed in popular culture.

 

Charles Bean’s approach to his writing of the official Australian history of the war provides some justification as to how and why the ‘Anzac legend’ was created. Bean’s style brought a colonial scepticism to the traditional British trends of war documentation. He essentially wanted his war history to be accessible for everyone. He was supremely aware of his role as a war correspondent, “The war correspondent is responsible for most of the ideas of battle which the public possesses…”[12] This provides evidence in some part into how the actions of the Australian soldiers developed so extraordinarily into a national legend. Due to the accessibility of Bean’s writing, it was widely understandable and moreover relatable for the Australian population. Another key reason as to why the ‘ANZAC legend’ was infused into the national psyche was for propaganda and moral purposes. As mentioned in earlier points, news from the front by Bean and Ashmead-Bartlett was received well by Australian audiences. As Australia and New Zealand’s first military engagement as independent nations, the home fronts were anxious for good news. British war correspondent Ellis Ashmead-Bartlett’s emotional and invoking writing provided a tremendous moral boost for the Australian populous. The ‘Hobart Mercury’ on the 12th of May 1915 preluded Ashmead-Bartlett’s description of the landings with an inspiring comparison. It reads, “We publish today a brilliant description of the landing of the Australians and New Zealanders on Gallipoli Peninsula… They have shown that, though transplanted to these southern skies, the breed is still the same as that of the men of Mons and Waterloo…”[13] Embellishing war reports with comparisons to famous British Empire military victories were a successful means of fuelling moral and encouraging volunteers to enlist. Inspired by the stories to emerge from Gallipoli, popular culture pieces quickly emerged in order to capitalise on the reputation of the Anzac spirit. Mentioned prior was Banjo Patterson’s poem of which was regarded highly. In addition, film also served as a successful tool for promoting the war, especially Alfred Rolfe’s film entitled The Hero of the Dardanelles.

 

Rolfe’s film represented its socio-historical context to a significant extent. Euphoria surrounding the achievements of the Anzac forces at Gallipoli was high, and pieces encapsulating the Anzac spirit were immensely successful. The Hero of the Dardanelles premiered at the Majestic Theatre in Melbourne on the 17th July 1915. It was made as a patriotic war recruiting film with funding from and cooperation with the Department of Defence, evident in an advertisement for the film in the ‘Sydney Morning Herald.’[14] Film historian Paul Byrnes explains the reason for the creation of the film, “The first press reports of the landings at Gallipoli had been published in early May 1915 in Australia, to immense excitement…Australasian Films seized the moment to rush a feature film re-enactment into production”.[15] The film was greatly received for its patriotic message, as New South Wales Premier William .A. Holman stated in the previous source, “It is one of the finest military pictures I have ever seen”.[16] Although only 21 minutes of the original 59-minute silent film remains, The Hero of the Dardanelles serves as an important landmark in Australian film history. This is especially poignant when examined with the evolution of the Anzac legend throughout Australian history. Paul Byrnes reflects this point, “The older that footage gets, the more real it becomes, in a sense… It was mythical when it was made in 1915; as the mythology of Gallipoli has grown, the footage has become more solid…”[17] Byrnes is essentially stating that time has made the Anzac mythology within The Hero of the Dardanelles more significant. Its heavy use of nationalistic imagery and rhetoric certainly reflects the public discourse in 1915. The unglamorous truth about the realities of warfare and the Gallipoli campaign had not been revealed by the time of The Hero of the Dardanelles’s release. Hence, the excitement and patriotism felt towards the war in the film reflected its context. The piece is ultimately positive in its message, this is clearly evident as the music playing during the ‘Landing at Gallipoli’ scene is upbeat and joyful. Throughout the film, patriotic folk songs like Banjo Paterson’s ‘Waltzing Matilda,’ and Peter Dodds McCormick’s ‘Advance Australia Fair,’ are played by a piano, emphasising the patriotic theme of the film. In addition with this, are various references to popular phrases and recruitment posters; this was done in order to fulfil the film’s recruitment purpose. Posters and scenes include provoking phrases like, “Australia Forever!” “He Did His Duty. Will You Do Yours?” and “Will They Never Come?”[18] The latter poster featured represented a contemporary issue faced by the armed forces in regards to recruitments. The poster entitled, ‘An appeal from the Dardanelles: will they never come?’ was developed by artist Jim Hannan, who sought to “shame young men into enlisting by juxtaposing the image of an Australian soldier standing guard over his dead mate, with a photograph of a Victorian Football League match”.[19] This issue of men choosing sport over military service was prominent during the early years of the war. This is reflected at the beginning of Rolfe’s work as protagonist Will Brown puts down his cricket bat after seeing the poster and decides to enlist. He later encourages his friends at a Sydney pub to enlist also.[20] Rolfe’s film too invokes the idea of guilt and shame to those who did not support their nation. This is portrayed in the piece by an anti-war protestor tearing down a recruitment poster put up by the protagonist, of which he is quickly removed from the pub.[21] The anti-war character is branded as the principle antagonist in the film, reflecting government attitudes towards those who did not support the war. In this regard, the film also reflected a greater public discourse. The anti-war movement was not prominent following the initial news reports from Gallipoli, hence The Hero of the Dardanelles capitalised on the ‘Anzac spirit,’ functioning successfully as a representation of this within its time.

 

Public opinion in general surrounding warfare and its poetic nature was all but eliminated by the release of Peter Weir’s 1981 film ‘Gallipoli.’ The rhetoric within the ‘Anzac legend’ had faced a tremendous amount of scrutiny especially during the 1960s and 70s. An example of this was Alan Seymour’s play entitled ‘The One Day of the Year.’ This play dramatised the increasing social divide regarding the ‘Anzac spirit’ and what it represents.[22] Interest in the commemoration of Anzac Day had reached its lowest point immediately following Australia’s involvement in the Vietnam War. The principle argument that formed during this time was that the supposed “birth of a nation” that occurred at Gallipoli was only applicable to white Australian men. Many argued that ‘Anzac legend’ is exclusionary, and cannot represent the birth of a nation due to the absence particularly of women, immigrants and Indigenous Australians.[23] What is important to note however, is that many of these concerns around the Anzac legend exist today. Anti-imperialist sentiments and the fierce opposition to conscription during the war in Vietnam also harmed the traits of the legend.[24] Through this, it is observed that the context preluding Peter Weir’s film is much different to that of Alfred Rolfe’s, certainly when considering the motivation for the respective productions. Peter Weir’s ‘Gallipoli’ is also a product of its socio-historical context, as noted by Robert Manne. He stated that, “The end of the Vietnam War was a rare, radical moment in Australian history. It produced the film Gallipoli, written by David Williamson and directed by Peter Weir, which provided an anti-imperial interpretation of Gallipoli”.[25] Weir effectively sculpts the ‘Anzac legend’ into a more republican interpretation by criticising the failed British campaign. Whilst also heavily incorporating themes of mateship and larrikinism that are also prevalent within the ‘Anzac spirit’. The director demonstrates the inherent skepticism towards the British within the ‘Anzac spirit’ through contrasting the characteristics the two protagonists Archy and Frank. Archy is the naïve, blond–haired boy from rural Western Australia who dreams of serving the Empire, while Frank is an Irish Australian who wishes not to enlist and is naturally cynical. Academics Livio and Pat Dobrez note this as the film’s intention in their article, “They (Williamson and Weir) want to balance the portrait of a naive boy, eager to serve the cause of Empire, with something more critical”. Other characters demonstate this skeptic attitude towards the British Empire. The camel driver for example asks, “why is a European war our war?” In addition with Frank’s Irish father asking, “why fight for the English?”[26] The questioning as to why Australians were fighting “someone else’s war” ultimately peaks within the final scenes at the disastrous Battle of the Nek. Weir attributed the unrestrained slaughter of Anzac soldiers to be at the fault of the incapable and indifferent British officers who commanded them. Historically, after the conclusion of the campaign and the true nature of the battle had been known to the greater public, many disregarded the need for the British Empire to be incorporated within the Australian national identity.[27]  Hence, reinforcing the patriotic elements of the Anzac traits within all Australians. In this regard, ‘Gallipoli’ reflects a contemporary public discourse in regards to anti-imperialism and fighting foreign wars. The anti-Vietnam war movement was primarily focused around these two tropes. Peter Weir’s film used those beliefs in his portrayal of the meaning of the ‘Anzac spirit;’ that of innocence through unnecessary conflict in “someone else’s war”. When this is considered, ‘Gallipoli’s’ representation of the ‘Anzac legend’ functions well in the context of the post-Vietnam war era. In addition, Weir’s interpretation helped to revive the celebration of the ‘Anzac spirit’ in Australian society.

 

Following the 1980s to today, commemoration of Anzac Day has steadily revived in popularity. This has primarily been attributed to young Australians pursuing knowledge in Australia’s military history, and a renewed identification with the characteristics of the ‘Anzac legend.’ Writers Jim McKay and Brad West noted evidence towards this familiarity toward the legend of Anzac. They write, “…Anzac has widespread appeal in everyday Australian life. In two studies Phillips and Smith reported that Australians consistently approved of the Anzac tradition…and a national survey found that Anzacs were associated with national identity by 90% of respondents”.[28] Since the 1980s, travelling to Gallipoli has become immensely popular, with many making the pilgrimage annually, further emphasising the modern patriotic resonance with the ‘Anzac spirit.’[29] With this context, it is interesting to assess the effectiveness of Christopher Lee and Glendyn Ivin’s 2015 television series production entitled ‘Gallipoli,’ in portraying the spirit of Anzac. It tells a similar story to that of Peter Weir’s 1981 film, that of a naïve underage boy who loses his innocence and through his actions, helps to establish the ‘Anzac legend.’ The television series was released on the Nine Network in early 2015, to coincide with the 100-year anniversary of the Gallipoli landings.[30] Despite excellent ratings, Lee and Ivin’s production failed to secure decent television ratings.[31] Through this indication, unlike the previously mentioned films in this essay, ‘Gallipoli’ fails to properly reflect a wider public discourse. It certainly is a product of its socio-historical environment; it was made to reflect the vast interest surrounding the ‘Anzac legend,’ especially considering 2015 being the centenary celebration of its inception. However, this representation did not function to the extent its creators had initially expected. Many critics appoint this disappointment toward poor marketing by the Nine Network, “For a drama such as this, leading in with the reality reno show The Block might not have been the best scheduling decision from Channel Nine”.[32] However, Craig Mathieson attributes ‘Gallipoli’s’ ratings failure towards “Australia’s inferiority complex”. Mathieson states that, “The series is harrowing because it values reality over jingoistic sentiment and that’s not been the recent norm for Australian drama offerings”. [33] The absence of the overwhelming patriotic characteristics of the ‘Anzac legend’ within the television series has resulted in a loss of legitimacy for the concept. Historian Graham Davidson argued in 2003 as to why the ‘Anzac spirit’ had lost its relevance, “Now we know what we should perhaps have realised from the beginning – that the myth might flourish even more luxuriantly when it was freed from the limitation of historical fact and the human frailties of its surviving representatives”.[34] Davison is fundamentally stating that although the myth of Anzac has flourished, its essence is lost once those carrying the reality of the myth were lost. Essentially, despite excellent reviews, the television series ‘Gallipoli’ failed to capitalise on the success of the revival of the ‘Anzac spirit’ in 2015, due to the public’s general lack of interest in its initial principles.

 

The identity and relevance of the ‘Anzac spirit’ has changed significantly throughout its 100-year history. In its initial years the works of war correspondents Charles E.W. Bean and Ellis Ashmead-Bartlett can be attributed significantly as to how and why the ‘Anzac legend’ originated. Through the study of Australian popular culture in the last century, it can be seen how this nationalistic sentiment has varied as a result of changing socio-historical circumstances. The representation of the ‘Anzac legend’ was best reflected through the films ‘The Hero of the Dardenelles’ of 1915, and the 1981 film ‘Gallipoli.’ In addition with the 2015 television series entitled ‘Gallipoli.’ Through the analysis of their respective socio-historical contexts and general public discourses concerning the interpretation of ‘Anzac’, it was assessed how well these films reflected their representation of the ‘Anzac legend.’ Especially when considering the context of those discourses. A better understanding of the ‘Anzac spirit’s’ legitimacy and relevance to Australian society can be made through the examination of its presence and continued presence in Australian popular culture.

 

 

 

 

Bibliography:

 

News and Journal Articles:

 

‘Advertising.’ Sydney Morning Herald. 21 July 1915. (digitalised by the National Library of Australia). Accessed: 20 May 2015. Available from: http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15595762

 

Bean, Charles E.W. ‘Volume II: – The Story of Anzac: from 4 May 1915 to the evacuation.’  . Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918. 1941. 910.

 

Davison, Graham. ‘The Habit of Commemoration and the Revival of Anzac Day.’ Australian Cultural History. Volume: 22. 2003. 81.

 

Dow, Steve. ‘Gallipoli and The Secret River: TV set to challenge Australia’s foundation myths.’ The Guardian. 17 January 2015. Accessed 24 May 2015. Available from: http://www.theguardian.com/tv-and-radio/2015/jan/17/gallipoli-and-the-secret-river-tv-set-to-challenge-australias-foundation-myths

 

Dunne, Stephen. ‘The One Day Of The Year, STC.’ Review of ‘The One Day Of The Year’ in the Sydney Morning Herald. 4 April 2003. Accessed 23 May 2015. Available from: http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2003/04/03/1048962876103.html

 

Hart, Peter. ‘War is Helles: The Real Fight For Gallipoli.’ Wartime. Australian War Memorial: Canberra. 2007. Issue 38. 10.

 

Manne, Robert. ‘The war myth that made us.’ The Age. April 25, 2007. 1-2. Accessed 17 May 2015. Available from: http://www.theage.com.au/news/robert-manne/the-war-myth-that-made-us/2007/04/24/1177180648069.html

 

Mathieson, Craig. ‘Gallipoli’s ratings fail highlights Australia’s inferiority complex’. Sydney Morning Herald. 18 February 2015. Accessed 24 May 2015. Available from: http://www.smh.com.au/entertainment/tv-and-radio/gallipolis-ratings-fail-highlights-australias-inferiority-complex-20150218-13hwz8.html

 

McKay, Jim & West, Brad. ‘Gallipoli, Tourism and Australian Nationalism.’ In Miller, Toby. The Routledge Companion to Global Popular Culture. Routledge. 2014 378.

 

Twemlow, Jazz. ‘Gallipoli’s understated drama deserves an audience – why isn’t it getting one?’ The Guardian. 23 February 2015. Accessed 24 May 2015. Available from: http://www.theguardian.com/tv-and-radio/2015/feb/23/gallipolis-understated-drama-deserves-an-audience-why-isnt-it-getting-one

 

 

 

 

 

 

Books:

 

Aspinall-Oglander, Cecil F. Military Operations Gallipoli: Inception of the Campaign to May 1915. London: Heinemann. 1929. 51-52

 

Dennis, Peter; Grey, Jeffrey; Morris, Ewan; Prior, Robin; and Jean, Bou. The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History. 2nd ed. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. 2008. 32.

 

Grey, Jeffrey. A Military History of Australia. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press. 3rd ed. 2008.  95-98.

 

Grimshaw, Patricia. Creating a Nation. Melbourne: McPhee Gribble Publishers. 1994. 2.

 

Ham, Paul. Vietnam: The Australian War. Sydney: Harper Collins. 2007. 449–456.

 

Hartley, John; Potts, Jason. Cultural Science: A Natural History of Stories, Demes, Knowledge and Innovation. Bloomsbury Publishing. 2014. 50

 

Lewis, Wendy; Balderstone, Simon; Bowan, John. Events That Shaped Australia. New Holland Publishers. 2006. 110.

 

Macleod, Jenny. Reconsidering Gallipoli. Manchester University Press. 2004. 5.

 

Wahlert, Glenn. Exploring Gallipoli. Canberra: Army History Unit. 2008. 9

 

Films:

 

Rolfe, Alfred. ‘Hero of the Dardenelles.’ Australia: Australasian Films, 1915. Film.

 

Weir, Peter. Gallipoli. Australia: Associated R&R Films. 1981. Film.

 

Internet Sources:

 

Australian War Memorial. ‘Ellis Ashmead-Bartlett.’ Dawn of the Legend: 25 April 1915. Accessed 16 May 2015. Available from: https://www.awm.gov.au/exhibitions/dawn/legend/ashmead/

 

Australian War Memorial. ‘The Anzac spirit.’ Dawn of the Legend: 25 April 1915. Accessed 16 May 2015. Available from: https://www.awm.gov.au/exhibitions/dawn/spirit/

 

Byrnes, Paul. ‘Gallipoli on Film. Australian Screen. 2015. Accessed 20 May 2015. Available from: http://aso.gov.au/titles/collections/gallipoli-on-film/

 

Byrnes, Paul. ‘The Hero of the Dardanelles.’ Australian Screen. 2015. Accessed 20 May 2015. Available from: http://aso.gov.au/titles/features/hero-of-the-dardanelles/notes/

 

Gallipoli and the Anzacs. Ashmead-Bartlett – The first report in Australia of the landing at Gallipoli in The Battle of the Landing, 25 April – 3 May 1915. (Primary source from ‘Hobart Mercury’ published 12th May 1915.) 2014. Accessed 18 May 2015. Available from: http://www.gallipoli.gov.au/battle-of-the-landing/ellis-ashmead-bartlett.php#

 

Great Britain War Office. Statistics of the military effort of the British Empire during the Great War, 1914-1920. London H.M. Stationery Office. Published digitally by the University of Toronto. 1922. 284-287. Accessed 17 May 2015. Available from: https://archive.org/details/statisticsofmili00grea

 

 

Other:

 

Paterson, Banjo. ‘We’re All Australians Now’. 1915. Accessed 17 May 2015. Available from: http://allpoetry.com/’We’re-All-Australians-Now

 

Hannan, Jim. ‘An appeal from the Dardanelles: will they never come?’ State Parliamentary Recruiting Committee. Melbourne. 1915. (Available from the Australian War Memorial website.) Accessed 23 May 2015. Available from: https://www.awm.gov.au/collection/ARTV07583/

 

 

 

[1] Lewis, Wendy; Balderstone, Simon; Bowan, John. Events That Shaped Australia. New Holland Publishers. 2006. 110.

 

[2] Dennis, Peter; Grey, Jeffrey; Morris, Ewan; Prior, Robin; and Jean, Bou. The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History. 2nd ed. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. 2008. 32.

 

[3] Australian War Memorial. ‘The Anzac spirit.’ Dawn of the Legend: 25 April 1915. Accessed 16 May 2015. Available from: https://www.awm.gov.au/exhibitions/dawn/spirit/

[4] Aspinall-Oglander, Cecil F. Military Operations Gallipoli: Inception of the Campaign to May 1915. London: Heinemann. 1929. 51-52

 

[5] Hart, Peter. ‘War is Helles: The Real Fight For Gallipoli.’ Wartime. Australian War Memorial: Canberra. 2007. Issue 38. 10.

 

[6] Great Britain War Office. Statistics of the military effort of the British Empire during the Great War, 1914-1920. London H.M. Stationery Office. Published digitally by the University of Toronto. 1922. 284-287. Accessed 17 May 2015. Available from: https://archive.org/details/statisticsofmili00grea

 

[7] Australian War Memorial. ‘Ellis Ashmead-Bartlett.’ Dawn of the Legend: 25 April 1915. Accessed 16 May 2015. Available from: https://www.awm.gov.au/exhibitions/dawn/legend/ashmead/

 

[8] Paterson, Banjo. ‘We’re All Australians Now’. 1915. Accessed 17 May 2015. Available from: http://allpoetry.com/’We’re-All-Australians-Now’

[9] Macleod, Jenny. Reconsidering Gallipoli. Manchester University Press. 2004. 5.

 

[10] Bean, Charles E.W. ‘Volume II: – The Story of Anzac: from 4 May 1915 to the evacuation.’  . Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918. 1941. 910.

 

[11] Bean. Charles E.W. Anzac to Amiens. (1983 reprint) Canberra: Australian War Memorial. 1983. 181

 

[12] Hartley, John; Potts, Jason. Cultural Science: A Natural History of Stories, Demes, Knowledge and Innovation. Bloomsbury Publishing. 2014. 50

 

[13] Gallipoli and the Anzacs. Ashmead-Bartlett – The first report in Australia of the landing at Gallipoli in The Battle of the Landing, 25 April – 3 May 1915. (Primary source from ‘Hobart Mercury’ published 12th May 1915.) 2014. Accessed 18 May 2015. Available from: http://www.gallipoli.gov.au/battle-of-the-landing/ellis-ashmead-bartlett.php#

 

[14] ‘Advertising.’ Sydney Morning Herald. 21 July 1915. (digitalised by the National Library of Australia). Accessed: 20 May 2015. Available from: http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15595762

 

[15] Byrnes, Paul. ‘The Hero of the Dardanelles.’ Australian Screen. 2015. Accessed 20 May 2015. Available from: http://aso.gov.au/titles/features/hero-of-the-dardanelles/notes/

 

[16] ‘Advertising.’ Sydney Morning Herald. 21 July 1915.

 

[17] Byrnes, Paul. ‘Gallipoli on Film. Australian Screen. 2015. Accessed 20 May 2015. Available from: http://aso.gov.au/titles/collections/gallipoli-on-film/

 

[18] Rolfe, Alfred. ‘Hero of the Dardenelles.’ Australia: Australasian Films, 1915. Film.

 

[19] Hannan, Jim. ‘An appeal from the Dardanelles: will they never come?’ State Parliamentary Recruiting Committee. Melbourne. 1915. (Available from the Australian War Memorial website.) Accessed 23 May 2015. Available from: https://www.awm.gov.au/collection/ARTV07583/

 

[20] Rolfe, Alfred. ‘Hero of the Dardenelles.’ 1915.

 

[21] Ibid ^

 

[22] Dunne, Stephen. ‘The One Day Of The Year, STC.’ Review of ‘The One Day Of The Year’ in the Sydney Morning Herald. 4 April 2003. Accessed 23 May 2015. Available from: http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2003/04/03/1048962876103.html

 

[23] Grimshaw, Patricia. Creating a Nation. Melbourne: McPhee Gribble Publishers. 1994. 2.

 

[24] Ham, Paul. Vietnam: The Australian War. Sydney: Harper Collins. 2007. 449–456.

 

[25] Manne, Robert. ‘The war myth that made us.’ The Age. April 25, 2007. 2. Accessed 17 May 2015. Available from: http://www.theage.com.au/news/robert-manne/the-war-myth-that-made-us/2007/04/24/1177180648069.html

 

[26] Weir, Peter. Gallipoli. Australia: Associated R&R Films. 1981. Film.

 

[27] Grey, Jeffrey. A Military History of Australia. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press. 3rd ed. 2008.  95-98.

 

[28] McKay, Jim & West, Brad. ‘Gallipoli, Tourism and Australian Nationalism.’ In Miller, Toby. The Routledge Companion to Global Popular Culture. Routledge. 2014 378.

[29] Wahlert, Glenn. Exploring Gallipoli. Canberra: Army History Unit. 2008. 9

 

[30] Dow, Steve. ‘Gallipoli and The Secret River: TV set to challenge Australia’s foundation myths.’ The Guardian. 17 January 2015. Accessed 24 May 2015. Available from: http://www.theguardian.com/tv-and-radio/2015/jan/17/gallipoli-and-the-secret-river-tv-set-to-challenge-australias-foundation-myths

 

[31] Mathieson, Craig. ‘Gallipoli’s ratings fail highlights Australia’s inferiority complex’. Sydney Morning Herald. 18 February 2015. Accessed 24 May 2015. Available from: http://www.smh.com.au/entertainment/tv-and-radio/gallipolis-ratings-fail-highlights-australias-inferiority-complex-20150218-13hwz8.html

 

[32] Twemlow, Jazz. ‘Gallipoli’s understated drama deserves an audience – why isn’t it getting one?’ The Guardian. 23 February 2015. Accessed 24 May 2015. Available from: http://www.theguardian.com/tv-and-radio/2015/feb/23/gallipolis-understated-drama-deserves-an-audience-why-isnt-it-getting-one

 

[33] Mathieson, Craig. Sydney Morning Herald. 2015.

 

[34] Davison, Graham. ‘The Habit of Commemoration and the Revival of Anzac Day.’ Australian Cultural History. Volume: 22. 2003. 81.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s